Project Management is Also Stress Management: How Entrepreneurs Can Manage Stress and Stay Sane

Regardless of whether you are a project manager for an organization, an independent contractor or entrepreneur, or a small business owner, tasks and responsibilities can easily get out of hand of you aren’t careful. Taking on a small business or even managing a high profile project can be stressful.

So how can project managers, business owners, and entrepreneurs keep things in check? Here are some tips on how to manage projects and manage stress to stay sane.

Manage Workloads. Easier said than done, right? Kind of. If you are a small business owner or entrepreneur, you never want to turn away work. In fact, two out of every three business owners work an average of forty hours per week or more. And one in every ten business owners work an average of seventy hours per week or more. However, while this is usually good news as too much is a wig of sheer business growth, we need to be realistic here. Everyone has a limit.

In the event that your business has too much work, manage expectations and workloads. Can you hire a freelancer to help you out? Can you work out a time frame with the client? How much time will the project realistically take? For project managers, this is about managing projects, stakeholders, team members, and may mean delegating tasks to other team members or looping in vendors to help out as necessary. There are always ways available to manage workloads.

Stop Project Managing Your Own Life. Experienced project managers and entrepreneurs, do you find yourself doing is? Most would reply with a resounding ‘yes’. Project management definitely appeals to certain personality types that are extremely organized and detail oriented. The classic project manager is extremely neat and organized at home, uses spreadsheets to track, well, everything, and answers emails while cooking dinner on the stove. If this is you, or sounds a little something like you, stop. It’s one thing to be organized and efficient, but don’t let it run your life. Life is messy and it’s okay to be sometimes.

Take Time Off. Another easier said than done point. Who has time to take time off? Even if you were able to finagle it, would you really be able to enjoy a day or week off without worrying about a particular project or client? Would you be able to go a day without checking email? Most business owners and entrepreneurs would answer with a resounding ‘no’ this time. The fact is, in order to keep functioning and maintaining a healthy and healthy work life balance, we have to take time off tot take care of ourselves. One way or another we need to make it happen.

If it helps, set certain goals for yourself before you take time off. Land an account with a new client, finish three large projects, hire a freelance to delegate tasks to while you are away. This way you will feel accomplished and like your time off was earned.

Being a small business owner, entrepreneur, and/or project manager is certainly challenging. No doubt about it. However, it’s important to keep things in check. Be sure to keep the points above in mind whenever you are managing work, projects, or clients. This is the key to managing stress in your small business.

Tips for New Project Managers

Project management – it’s all about task management and scheduling, right? Not so fast. There’s a reason why most project managers you meet are between 40 and 60 years old, with between 10 and 20 years of experience. Successful project management is an art form that requires a unique set of skills that are typically developed through years of experience. If you are a new project manager, here are some great tips that you can put into practice to get you on the right track.

Commit Yourself to Continuous Learning

You may be familiar with some industry terms and concepts from being a team member on various projects. However, as a new project manager, you’ll notice that there are always new certifications, software, or other training that can make you much more effective at your job.  Plan to continue learning, and you’ll always stay ahead of the pack. The Project Management Institute (PMI) is the largest worldwide association for the industry, and they offer several certification levels that can help increase your abilities and advance your career.

Ask Questions

Don’t be concerned that you will seem incompetent if you ask for help. No company will, or should, expect you to know it all as soon as you start. The best way to approach new situations is to be like a sponge, soaking up as much knowledge as you can. If you don’t understand something or become involved in a project that you haven’t had experience with, ask for guidance. By taking the time to understand the task at hand, you’ll be less likely to make costly mistakes.

Use the Right Software

A large part of a project manager’s success or failure can be attributed to their choice of project management software. Taking the time to find a platform that allows clear and specific communication of task details will allow your team to meet deadline and budget constraints. It is important to use project management software that allows you to share project schedules with your entire team, but it is equally important that it has the administration settings available to not over-share information with teammates that don’t need it. It is important to not over-share information for the productivity of your team because there is no sense in bogging people down with tasks and objectives that are not relevant to them. Look for software that doesn’t break the bank, but don’t sacrifice these features:  user-friendly, browser-like navigation, easy printing, and the ability to search and filter data quickly to locate the information that you need.

Adhering to these tips from effective project managers and using project management software will go a long way in helping you enjoy a rewarding project management career. Strive to provide the best and most project management professional you can be by staying inquisitive advancing your knowledge, and staying current with technology. With the right knowledge, people and tools you can navigate any project with ease.

The Power of Team Dynamics

Team Dynamics deals with all those underlying forces between the different people on a team that influences how a team operates. It can really make a difference on how a team reacts, behaves or performs. Ideally you want a highly cohesive and supportive team, working together to get the job done. However, many times due to team dynamics, you might have differences that impact performance and negative team dynamics. It’s these negative dynamics that you want to focus on resolving. These can really bite you.

I’ve seen team dynamics affected by many factors including:
• Existing relationships either impact positively or negatively the cohesiveness of the team due to perceived favoritism or real trust.
• Team members who have different personalities resulting in conflicts across the team, misunderstandings, and lack of trust.
• Physical forces can shift team dynamics such as resources located in different locations, being from different cultures, or simply on different schedules.
• Absences of leadership or shifts of leadership can change team dynamics.

So what can you do to help build a high performing team and improve the team dynamics such that you have a cohesive and supportive group? Here’s a few ways that I have found to be effective in helping build strong teams.

Understand Personality/Strengths. Recognizing differences in personality types as well as strengths of each team member can help you support and integrate team members more effectively. Tests such as Myers Briggs and Strengths Finder can support you with this. Have each team member take these tests and share the results as a team exercise so that everyone benefits from knowing more about each team member.
Build Trust. Work to build trust across the team. Foster an environment of trust and openness. Have team functions that are designed for individuals to get to know each other. If your team is virtual, create a team room (sharepoint, wiki, etc.) that supports profile information about each team member.
Have a common vision. When everyone is supporting a common vision and they know how they play a part in that vision, it creates a cohesive alignment that builds enthusiasm and support of the team. Showing the importance of the team as a whole (rather than individuals) helps to build this vision.
Environmental layout. Look for ways to bring team members together. If possible have them work in a common area/location. When not possible, have a common on-line environment where they can go and share information. If you have teams in multiple locations, try to do team meetings across the locations (not in one standard place) and encourage team building events.
Address conflict/issues quickly. When you feel the team dynamics is moving in a negative direction, address the issues quickly. Don’t just hope that they will correct themselves. As with any conflict, look for a win-win situation, one that is accomplished in a positive and supportive way. Support the team environment, gaining trust of the individuals, and showing a one-team concept (remember there really is no “I” in “TEAM”.) For instance, with the two individuals that are friends but causing some concerns of favoritism, be open and let the team know the importance of the team and not one individual. Also, talk to the two individuals, let them know others feel they are being excluded, and ask them to help build trust in the team and get to know others on the team.

How teams function (positively versus negatively) can have a real impact on the results of a project. So, remember to study your team’s dynamics, identify any issues head on, and work to create a cohesive, open, highly communicating, and supportive team to help obtain the results you want to achieve. Remember to value each member of the team creating an inclusive versus exclusive environment. Here’s to your success as a leader. Inspire your team to greatness.

Why You Should LOVE Your Worst Clients

You’re familiar with the 80-20 rule, right? If not, it goes like this: 80% of your sales come from 20% of your customers, or 20% of your clients take 80% of your time. And if you provide services for clients (I use the word clients to refer to people within you own organization as well as external clients) you’re undoubtedly aware of which clients take up more than their fair share of your time. You might hold resentment towards them because they drain your energy or eat away at your profitability, but one thing is almost guaranteed – you will never be free of difficult clients.

There’s plenty of advice on the web for how to deal with, or disarm difficult clients, but this article is about why you should LOVE them – and I mean, love them so much that you *heart* them!

Many designers adopt a “they just don’t get it” attitude about their clients, and they get frustrated and resolve to just do want the client asks for even if it goes against their better judgement about design. Taking this approach will get you through the project, but it will also diminish the value you are providing to your clients who have come to you for your expertise.

Instead, I try to recognize how my most difficult clients can help me sharpen my presentation skills, tighten up my process, and improve the services I offer. Additionally, taking the high road can gain you a valuable advocate for your business, since it’s likely that other businesses have failed to impress this client, leaving the door wide open for you to step forth and shine!

So, to help get started to be able to recognize the benefits a difficult client can provide, here are three common scenarios and how they can help your business:

Scenario 1: The Combatant

The combative client disagrees with everything. They argue about price, they don’t like what you show them, they disagree with your strategy, they challenge every point you make, and they can even border on verbal abusiveness. I absolutely *heart* this client, and you should too! They will force you to elevate your game better than you could do on your own in ten times the amount of time. The key is simply to understand that they feel as strongly about the success of the project as you do. They need to be convinced about every detail, and they won’t just stand by without getting involved.

Tips to help you:

Restate the question. If something feels like an attack, restate their comment or question without any loaded language, in a calm and direct way. This demonstrates that you’ve heard them, but it also reframes to topic in a more neutral, possibly solutions-focused way.

Fight for what you believe is best. Remember, they hired you for your expertise – they don’t expect you to cave in to everything they say. Just be direct and state your rationale for each point that they challenge. You may find that they are right about a few things. That’s ok – remember, this is not a contest that you need to win; it’s about the success of the project.

How this difficult client helps your business:

Working with this kind of difficult client helps sharpen your skills for presenting your case in a clear and compelling way, keeping the conversation focused on moving the project toward a successful outcome. Being very proficient in this area prepares you for bigger, more lucrative projects.
Once you’ve proven your worth to the combative client and won them over, they can turn into your most vocal and influential referral source.

Scenario 2: I’ll Know it When I See It

Clients in this scenario have difficulty providing useful, or definitive feedback. It might be because they don’t trust their judgement and are therefore afraid to commit to a direction, or they just don’t know how to express what needs to be changed. They’ll say things like “It’s not working for me – can I see a few more concepts” without being able to explain what’s not working, or they might say “I’ll know it when I see it.” A project with this client can go around in circles without ever closing in on a solution, easily eating up your profits or costing your client more money – either way, nobody will be enjoying the process. Believe it or not, I *heart* this client! I’ve had many such clients over the years, and while it gets easier, it always provides a learning experience for me.

Tips to help you:

Ask questions that help guide your client towards understanding exactly what’s making them feel uneasy, and keep working with this approach until you have something actionable. Remember, you need to have enough information so you know exactly what needs to be done next.

Narrow the scope of the discussion by asking very specific questions, for example. “How do you feel about this how this image is working to support the headline?” Keep the discussion framed within the context of the stated goals of the project. If your client is afraid to move forward, try and demonstrate how your design meets the objectives of the project. Doing so, will help reduce the weight given to subjective opinions. Remember, your role is to help your client. This might require you to educate them about the iterative design process which moves a project towards a solution.

How this difficult client helps your business:

This client will actually sharpen your design skills. By listening to this outside perspective on your designs, you get a different view of things. In a way, they are playing the devil’s advocate in your user testing group.
Learning how to narrow in on the information you need is an enormous time-saver! By being able to skillfully identify exactly what is holding your client back, you can completely remove the guesswork from your design process.

Scenario 3: I Don’t Know How to Do Anything

We all have clients who need to have things explained, but sometimes you’ll come across a client who requires so much hand-holding that they become the 20% who consumes 80% of your time. But, you guessed it, I *heart* this client! Why? Because I know that if I can present my services in a way that this person can understand, then I know I’m making it easy for everyone to understand.

Tips to help you:

Simplify overwhelming landscapes of information into a series of manageable steps. If the steps themselves are too complex or if they may seem daunting to your client, further break those into yet smaller steps.
Provide helpful information at just the right time. Rather than sending large batches of  information to your client (where you risk that it might just get “filed”), anticipate where your client is in their understanding and send over only the information that is relevant to that point in the process. Finish every meeting with  “What happens next” and create tip sheets that cover each of the most common areas of difficulty for these clients. You can incorporate these tip sheets into your process, sending them to almost all of your clients at just the right point in the project.

How this difficult client helps your business:

Not only will these clients make you a master of describing what you do in a clear and easy-to-understand way, which is appealing to all prospective clients, but they will help you tighten up your process for greater efficiency and better quality.

This client’s questions will give you great ideas for content you should be writing for your website, your blog, and your email newsletters. Additionally, if you create tip sheets as an aid, these make excellent value-adds for your other clients, and useful downloads that will attract previously unidentified prospects into your funnel.

Small Businesses Project Management Tools: A Few Reasons Why

Project Management can help businesses of all sizes to succeed

In business terms, a project essentially describes any type of business activity that has a clearly defined beginning and end. Project Management is simply a business tool, which helps to ensure that each ‘project’ or ‘business activity’ is carried out as efficiently and successfully as possible through following a standard PM process.

People tend to only associate projects with big businesses and large-scale budgets, when in reality projects have nothing whatsoever to do with size and Project Management is an incredibly beneficial tool that can be successfully applied to businesses of any size.

As a small business owner, you may have goals to develop and create more products, expand the services you currently offer clients, or perhaps you have a problem or hurdle you wish to overcome in order to move forward. A problem could include anything from replacing an unsuitable website or reviewing the way you presently schedule appointments. From a business perspective, any of these types of activities can be described and approached as a project, in order to achieve the best possible results.

Project Management can help your small business to compete successfully with others in your industry and achieve success in all of your business goals.

How can Project Management benefit a small business?

When a business is able to apply a consistent approach to the way each and every single one of their projects is tackled, less time is wasted and performance is significantly improved. Improved performance leads to a direct increase in profit.

The key benefits are:
• Better time management achieved through a standard approach to projects
• Rapid completion of projects – giving your small business a competitive advantage
• Increase in overall performance of the business as more goals are achieved
• Increase in productivity, turnover and profit

How to implement Project Management in your small business

There are a number of existing web based Project Management tools that are affordable and easy to learn and use, allowing small businesses apply the methods to their business immediately. Choose a simple and proven approach that is straightforward to learn and gradually perfect.

There are also a number of affordable Project Management training options to choose from. If your interested in this route then take a look online for reputable training providers and aim to have as many staff members as possible trained. Giving your staff the skills and tools they require to effectively apply Project Management processes to their role will significantly increase their value to your business and enable your entire team to share best practices.

An incredibly powerful tool

Project Management has the power to completely transform the future of your business by aiding it to develop and grow successfully. Regardless of the size of your business, whether you are a sole trader working alone or a small business owner managing your own team of staff, you have a great deal to gain by applying Project Management techniques to your business at the earliest opportunity.

The results are soon apparent because before you know it, you will be defining your goals and efficiently achieving them, on time and on budget within a clearly defined Project Management framework. You will quickly gain insight into what works well for your business and what doesn’t work quite so well and this insight can be applied to each subsequent project in order to improve results and help you to work more efficiently.

When you see for yourself the huge difference Project Management makes to your small business, you will probably find yourself wishing you had applied its methods and techniques years ago!

Is Project Management Relevant to Small Business?

You are ready to start your small business. You made a very important decision that will change your life dramatically in the next few years – either for better or worse.

You don’t need to work for someone anymore and you don’t need to push yourself to follow instruction of your boss that you don’t agree with. You have a lot of ideas and you have all chances to make your dreams real. You are on the way to your own wonderful world where most of the things under your control.

Many people start their own business and succeed. However, the number of people who fails is much bigger and ever growing. There is no simple reason to give when you fail. Still, there are a lot of theories to explain your win.

We often find comfort in believing two things: weak planning and poor project management as the two most important culprits to fix the blame on.

It is commonly believed that project management is relevant only to big companies and small businesses shouldn’t bother. Often the person who creates his own company is a professional in some area of business. He supposes that he doesn’t need additional administrative work because the business is small and he is able to keep all tasks under his control. He needs to move fast, has limited resources and, in his opinion, any sort of project management is an unnecessary fiscal burden that will hinder progress.

Even if there is some truth in these arguments, modern day small business owner is only increasing his chances of failure by neglecting to see the importance and value of project management. Today, the small business owner faces a world full of complexities and intricacies that demand your power of concentration to to the highest level and delegating other tasks to a team committed to achieving goals.

If you are starting your own business, you have a lot of new opportunities and a lot of new threats too. At the same time, competition is so rife that no niche is immune from lethal competition.

Sure, you are full of bright ideas, you feel very energetic and you think that you can do a lot. Don’t overestimate your abilities. You need to concentrate on only one main dream which you want to make real. Several dreams could be too many because of your limited resources. If you choose one opportunity you will naturally give up others and probably a better one.

Finally, the choice is made and you are facing different problems like the problem that you don’t have a boss.. No one controls you, put millstones, gives you tasks and checks deadlines. Very soon you will understand that self-control is not easy task even you are very disciplined person.

So what about managing a team? You will have variety of problems. Someone may misunderstand your task, break deadlines or give up job half way through quite unexpectedly. You are very enthusiastic but you are not able to motivate the team. All these problems now are on your shoulders.

If your finances are limited, which is common for most small businesses, you need to plan your budget carefully. Consider that you don’t want to be in unpleasant situation when you have spent all your money but you don’t have any more to finish the work.

Having your own business includes solving problems that are the result of your mistakes and weaknesses or just something unexpected. If you don’t have proper plan how to manage difficult situations and correct mistakes you have very low chance to survive. In small business, what always matters is what your proactive strategies are.

What opportunity to choose? How to get results? What methods to
use? How to estimate the results? How to improve outcomes? How to manage teams? These are all project management tasks.

Many interpreters think that project management is something very complex and they need put huge efforts to learn it spending night reading thick books. Really project management is very practical and valuable thing.

Project management will help you cut your big dream to small, simple and manageable tasks. Put them in right order. Solve possible problems. Help finish tasks on time and as a result you will be making your dreams come true.

Project management is not magic. It is just an effective tool for your business which allows you to avoid most problems in advance and solve problems that already exist. Using project management methods will help you keep things under control and feel more confident about your business and its destiny. That is your destiny.

The Top 10 Traits of a Successful Project Manager

Being a project manager is not easy. Not only do you have to be the most organized and put together individual on your team, you also have to worry about your job being on the line if a project is not finished successfully. While managing projects for Victory Productions, a small book and learning materials publisher, it was imperative that the projects I was managing were finished on time and within budget – after all, the education organizations we worked with were not known for being forgiving to those that squandered their very limited budgets.

Along with all that stress we face in managing projects, we also benefit from getting to collaborate with role-model team members (though they may be few and far between) and other project managers. In all these collaborations, I’ve put together my own list of traits I need to gain in order to better manage my projects:

  1. Organized One of the top key traits of being a successful project manager is organization. You must be organized as a project manager. You must have the ability to keep track of tasks, budgets, deadlines, and follow ups as necessary. In addition, being organized will show team members that you are on top of things which will alleviate any stress or concerns about assigning or getting tasks done and done on time.
  2. Detail-Oriented It is important for project managers to be able to sift through details. Some details may include minor specifications, deadlines, or other specific customer notes that should be considered during a project. As a project manager you will be given a lot of information and it is important for you to sort through and recognize errors or red flags or analyze schedules or deadlines accordingly.
  3. Resourceful Project managers are resourceful. They utilize their skills and training and experience to sort out details and make decisions accordingly. They make do with the information and resources that are available to them, but they also know when to step in and ask questions.
  4. Problem Solving Expert A big part of a project manager’s job is problem solving. In many project management roles you deal with conflict. Conflict is unavoidable, but you do have the power to find and reach a reasonable and rational resolution that is in everyone’s best interest, including the customer. You should not try to make this an exercise in power control but a chance to settle areas of conflict and allow compromise and a speedy resolution.
  5. The Ability to Strategize The ability to strategize is also key to successful project management. Project managers must look at details, instructions, specifications, issues, etc. objectively and strategize a plan or solution from there. It is important to look at an issue from all angles to determine which plan or solution would work best for production, for the company, and for the customer.
  6. Practice Effective Communication Practicing effective communication is an area in project management that cannot be overlooked. Communication can relate to the way you speak or write to someone or how a project or instructions are directed. When speaking or writing to someone, it is important to think about your words or wording beforehand. Remember that communication can be very easily misinterpreted, especially today when most correspondence is recorded in email. It is also important to think about your words and instructions before assigning or handing off a project to a team member or another department. Think of how someone will interpret your instructions or if they are clear.
  7. Be Proactive Project managers are also proactive. Being proactive can sometimes go hand in hand with being resourceful. As a project manager you need to be proactive and understand the projects, tasks or assignments that land on your lap. Project managers that are proactive will recognize problematic areas in a project before it begins, address any issues or concerns before they become real fires, and ask questions and follow up when necessary.
  8. Be Timely Remember that information should be given at the earliest possible time upon embarking on a new project or challenge. You should plan out your project and the tasks that each individual employee will need to accomplish and schedule accordingly. Remember that since each project has its own schedule and that the sooner you assign or hand off to someone, the sooner that person can do his or her job.
  9. Training Training is another element of project management which shouldn’t be taken lightly. You will need to constantly provide information and training to your team members. By giving your team members the tools they need to succeed, you will also succeed as a project manager as your team’s efforts will result in high quality projects and happy customers. In addition, providing effective training will also reduce the amount of errors, miscommunications, and the need to continuously retrain.
  10. Be Enthusiastic Show your enthusiasm. You should be excited about the tasks or projects you are about to take on. You should know that attitude is an element of success. Remember also that enthusiasm and positive attitudes are contagious. The more positivity you display the more your team members and coworkers will pick up on it. You should look forward to all the training and education you can receive. Make this a career rather than just a job. Love the challenge and rise up to it.

To summarize, in order to be a great project manager you should be able to plan out your tasks, organize, and plan accordingly. You should be able to manage your teams effectively and manage the distribution of important tasks. You should be able to sort through the details and information in projects and prioritize essential information and relay that information to your coworkers.

Every project has a crippling constraint

The saying goes: ‘Want to make a good laugh, tell them about your plans.’
The saying reminds us of the crude reality that projects are all about future; future is all about uncertainties.

We, as project managers have one bounden duty. It is to manage uncertainties in the best possible manner to realize the client’s expectations. Uncertainties are largely a byproduct of project constraints. In a utopian world of abundance, one may think, that project management could not be that challenging. But our experience always testifies to the contrary.

The fact, though bitter, stands out: constraints of this or that nature is part and parcel of project life. If you expect a better world, project management would not be a consideration for you.

It is not just opinion. There is science. In any given situation, which is dependent on several factors, one or the other is always a limiting factor. In a project this limiting factor can prop up here or there, sooner or later, internally or externally and as foreseen or quite unexpectedly. It could be technical, resource or physical. Project managers who do not pay heed to this reality, are bound to suffer miserably.

Project delays are the most remarkable consequence of ‘constraints’.

Project constraints mostly stem from uncertainties. The best way that we have learned to deal with uncertainties is to forecast and estimate. We have complicated methods of doing them. Computer assisted systems, at times, make us blind to the fact that none of these sophisticated methods is completely error free. In forecasting, we project the future based on intelligence gathered in retrospect. But circumstances are changing so fast that making an accurate predictions about the future is project manager’s nightmare.

Here comes the concept of constraints. In fast changing economic, technological and political world, the best estimates may prove to be useless. Fluctuations in prices, exchange rates and level of inflation do not warrant correct estimation. Change in any of them will become a limiting factor or a constraint.

Another set of constraints operates at a project scope level.  Most of the constraints and paralysing problems about project scope have their roots in sheer miscommunication. It’s a well known fact that project specifications are developed through a series of discussions between two widely different parties in terms of technical knowledge. The client, on one hand, has little technical knowledge about project management. The project manager, on the other hand, has got the technical expertise. The client has expectations. These expectations are tangible results he needs. In defining these results of project outputs, the client may have a vague idea which will be difficult to translate into realistic goals at once. The client could also have some expectations far beyond the technology and other resources may permit the project team to realize. The worse may be that, the project manager preoccupied with some technical complexities is totally out of the picture. Finally, project scope could be two different things to the main two parties involved. They may think that everything is alright, until the crippling moment comes. That is how ill-defined project scopes can become a deadly constraint. The client may have to think completely new and the project manager will have to sacrifice lot of effort and time.

Project are not closed systems. They are open systems that communicate with the external entities and numerous exchanges happen with the external environment. Most visible of those exchanges are material and information exchanges that are crucial to project implementation and operations.

These exchanges represent points where potential constraints may arise sooner or later. Suppliers, subcontractors and other partners can all experience problems and they can surface as irreparable constraints causing delays in project accomplishment. In my project management life, I have not always been fortunate to see suppliers who kept their commitments as agreed. Delays in material deliveries, supply of substandard materials and resulting compensatory procedures all have the potential to adversely affect projects.

External environment is uncertain and precarious. Things can happen quite unexpectedly. Economic, political, regulatory and technological factors change fast and unpredictably. They all contribute their share as project constraints.

So in the final analysis, even if you have a dream team working on the project, the environment is phenomenal, have sufficient budget and tools you need, there is still going to be a constraint. You are supposed to keep an open eye to this fact as project managers.